JTF-HCM Guidelines 2018: Appendix C

This glossary identifies and provides a definition for the key terms that are employed in these guidelines. Although most of the definitions are adopted or adapted from existing, commonly-used standards and resources, in some cases the formulation of an original definition was necessary for the purposes of these guidelines. The standards and resources from which the definitions have been drawn include the following:

National and International Standards 

Glossaries, Guidelines, Surveys, and Other Resources 

Born Digital Created and managed in a digital form.  


Byte A group of binary digits or bits (usually eight) operated on as a unit. Typically expressed in the following multiples:

  • 1 kilobyte (KB) = 1000 bytes, commonly calculated as 210 or 1024 bytes
  • 1 megabyte (MB) = 1 million bytes, commonly calculated as 220 bytes or 1,048,576 bytes
  • 1 gigabyte (GB) = 109 or 1 billion bytes, commonly calculated as 230 bytes
  • 1 terabyte (TB) = 1012 or 1,000,000,000,000 bytes, commonly calculated as 240 bytes

Container An enclosure for holding and protecting collection material and from which collection material is typically separated for use. Examples of containers include boxes, drawers, envelopes, folders, portfolios, and slipcases.  


Copy A single exemplar or instance of a manifestation.  


Derivative A digital file created from another digital file, intended for a purpose different than that of the original file. 


Digital Expressed through a sequence of discrete units, especially binary code (i.e. the digits 0 and 1).  


Digitized Converted to and managed in a digital form.    


Discoverable Refers to any description of collection material that can be discovered by way of the web. Extends well beyond catalog records and finding aids to include a wide range of web content (blog posts, online exhibits, databases, lists of collections, etc.) as well as web-accessible content (documents, spreadsheets, etc.).  


Holdings Collection material for which the repository provides sustained stewardship. Holdings consist primarily of collection material that has been formally accessioned by the repository. At the discretion of the repository, holdings may also include collection material that is on deposit at the repository and/or remote resources for which access rights have been acquired, at least for a certain period of time.  


Intellectual Unit A coherent set of content, in any form, that can be understood and described as a unit.  


Physical Unit A coherent document unit, inclusive of any protective devices, freely movable against other document units. Coherence may be achieved by, for example, binding, encasement, or digital containment. Examples of physical units include audio cassettes, computer discs, microfilm reels, rolls, sheets, video cartridges, and volumes.  


Published Offered for sale or issued publicly by a creator or issuing body.  


Surrogate A digital or physical copy created for the purpose of minimizing handling of the original and, once created, is what is delivered to users unless their research needs cannot be met by the surrogate. 

Title A word or phrase by which the material being described is known or can be identified. 

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