"Protocols for Native American Archival Materials": Information and Resources Page

Overview, History, and Guidelines

This page provides an overview of where to find information about the Protocols for Native American Archival Materials (PNAAM) publication, as well as reports about what has occurred within SAA via the Task Force to Review the Protocols for Native American Archival Materials (2008) and the Native American Protocols Forum Task Force (2009-2011).

Protocols for Native American Archival Materials publication (hosted by Northern Arizona University)

School for Advanced Research Guidelines for Collaboration

Protocols 101: How to Start the Conversation at Your Institution, NAAS Panel at the 2020 SAA Annual Meeting

Final Report: SAA Task Force to Review Protocols for Native American Archival Materials (2008)

Final Report: SAA Native American Protocols Forum Working Group (2012)

This report provides a general overview of the impetus and history of the Native American Procotols Forums held 2009-2011, as well as proposed next steps. The document also provides an appendix with full minutes from the August 26, 2011, meeting. Previous reports can be found here (2009, 2010). 

Research Projects Referencing PNAAM

NOTE: This list is NOT comprehensive and is meant to provide information on some of the general resources available.

Bertram, Cara S. “Avenues of Mutual Respect: Opening Communication and Understanding Between Native Americans and Archivists.” Master’s thesis, Western Washington University, 2012.

Bolcer, John. "The Protocols for Native American Archival Materials: Considerations and Concerns from the Perspective of a Non-Tribal Archivist." Easy Access 34, no. 4 (January 2009): 3-6.

Byrne, Alex. “Digitising and Handling Indigenous Cultural Resources in Libraries, Archives and Museums.” Presentation at the Communities and Memories: A Global Perspective: Memory of the World Conference, Canberra, 2008.

Callison, Camille, Jonathan Pringle, and Alissa Cherry. “Canadian Perspectives and Recommendations for Indigenous Archives” for Archives Summit: Protocols for Native American Archival Materials. Presentation at ATALM International Conference of Indigenous Archives, Libraries, and Museums, Washington D.C., 2015.

Christen, Kimberly. "Opening Archives: Respectful Repatriation." American Archivist 74, no. 1 (Spring-Summer 2011): 185-210.

Christen, Kimberly. “Tribal Archives, Traditional Knowledge, and Local Contexts: Why the “s” Matters.” Journal of Western Archives 6, no. 1 (2015).

Jimerson, Rand. Archives Power: Memory, Accountability, and Social Justice. Chicago: Society of American Archivists, 2009.

Joffrion, Elizabeth and Natalia Fernández. “Collaboration between Tribal and Non-Tribal Organizations: Sharing Expertise, Knowledge, and Cultural Resources” for Archives Summit: Protocols for Native American Archival Materials. Presentation at ATALM International Conference of Indigenous Archives, Libraries, and Museums, Washington D.C., 2015.

Joffrion, Elizabeth and Natalia Fernández. “Collaborations between Tribal and Nontribal Organizations: Suggested Best Practices for Sharing Expertise, Cultural Resources, and Knowledge.” The American Archivist 78, no. 1 (2015): 192-237.

Mathiesen, Kay. "A Defense of Native Americans' Rights Over Their Traditional Cultural Expressions." American Archivist 75, no. 2 (Fall-Winter 2012): 456-481.

O'Neal, Jennifer. "Archival Creative Friction: Indigenous Peoples' Existence and Resistence in the Archival Multiverse." Presentation at the Native American and Indigenous Studies Association Conference, Mohegan, 2012.

O'Neal, Jennifer. "Archival Advocacy, Inside Out: The Protocols for Native American Archival Materials." Presentation at the Association for Tribal Archives, Libraries, and Museums Conference, Tulsa, 2012.

O'Neal, Jennifer. "The Protocols for Native American Archival Material." Presentation at the Arizona Archives Alliance Symposium, Flagstaff, 2012.

O'Neal, Jennifer R. "Respect, Recognition, and Reciprocity: The Protocols for Native American Archival Materials." In Identity Palimpsests: Archiving Ethnicity in the U.S. and Canada, edited by Daniel Dominique and Amalia Levi. Sacramento: Litwin Books, 2014.

O'Neal, Jennifer R. “’The Right to Know’: Decolonizing Native American Archives.” Journal of Western Archives 6, no. 1 (2015): 1-17.

O'Neal, Jennifer R. and Karen Underhill. “Introduction to Protocols for Native American Materials” for Archives Summit: Protocols for Native American Archival Materials. Presentation at ATALM International Conference of Indigenous Archives, Libraries, and Museums, Washington D.C., 2015.

Roy, L., Bhasin, A., and S. K. Arriaga. Tribal Libraries, Archives, and Museums: Preserving Our Language, Memory, and Lifeways. Lanham: Scarecrow Press, 2011.​

Senier, Siobhan. “Digitizing Indigenous History: Trends and Challenges.” Journal of Victorian Culture 19, no. 3 (2014): 396-402.

St-Onge, Karine. "Digital Ethics and Reconciliation." Digital Ethics Report, University of Victoria Libraries, 2019.

Underhill, Karen. "Protocols for Native American Archival Material." RBM Journal 7 (Fall 2006): 134-145.

Winn, Samantha R. “Ethics of Access in Displaced Archives.” Provenance, Journal of the Society of Georgia Archivists 33, no. 1 (2015): 6-13.

Case Studies

Ceja, Janet. “Incorporating the Protocols into the Archival Curriculum” for Archives Summit: Protocols for Native American Archival Materials. Presentation at ATALM International Conference of Indigenous Archives, Libraries, and Museums, Washington D.C., 2015.

Reyes-Escudero, Verónica and J. Wendel Cox. “Survey, Understanding, and Ethical Stewardship of Indigenous Collections: A Case Study.” Collection Management 42, no. 3-4 (2017): 130-138.

Ryan, Ellen M. "Identifying Culturally Sensitive American Indian Material in a Nontribal Institution." SAA Case Studies in Archival Ethics 3 (2014).

Stoker, Storm. “Report on The Society of American Archivists Task Force to Review the Protocols for Native American Archival Materials.” Presentation at the Society of American Archivists Annual Meeting and Conference, Cleveland, 2015.

Building Relationships of Mutual Respect

Guidelines for Collaboration, The School for Advanced Research
Guidelines (video and text)

Truth & Reconciliation Report and Recommendations, Canadian Federation of Library Associations
Report and recommendations (text)

Devon Murphy, “Guidelines on Working with Indigenous Partners and Information”
Guidelines (text)

Jamila Ghaddar and Nadia Caidi, "Indigenous Knowledge in a Post-Apology Era: Steps Toward Healing and Bridge Building"
Article (text)

Striving for Balance in Content and Perspectives

Accessibility and Use

Gilman, "From Marginalization to Accessibility: Classification of Indigenous Materials. Faculty Scholarship"
Article (text)

Culturally Sensitive Materials

Traditional Knowledge labels
Tool/guidelines (text)

Mukurtu
Tool/guidelines (text)

Newberry Library
Sample policies from repository and guidelines (text)

American Philosophical Society
Sample policies from repository and guidelines (text)

Providing Context

Pitt Rivers
Project website and thesaurus (text)

Australian Institute of Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander Studies
Project website and thesaurus (text)

Ngā Upoku Tukutuku, Māori Subject Headings Project, jointly sponsored by LIANZA, Te Rōpū Whakahau, and the New Zealand National Library
Project website and thesaurus (text)

X̱wi7x̱wa Library and Deer Classification System
Website and thesaurus (text)

Doyle, Ann M.; Lawson, Kimberley; Dupont, Sarah, "Indigenization of Knowledge Organization at the Xwi7xwa Library"
Article (text)

Worth, Sydney, “This Library Takes an Indigenous Approach to Categorizing Books”
Article (text)

Monica Martens, "Creating a supplemental thesaurus to LCSH for a specialized collection: The experience of the National Indian Law Library"
Article (text)

Bone, Christine, Brett Lougheed, Camille Callison, Janet La France, and Terry Reilly, “Changes to Library of Congress Subject Headings Related to Indigenous Peoples: for use in the AMA MAIN Database”
Thesaurus (text)

Christine Bone, “Modifications to the Library of Congress Subject Headings for use by
Manitoba archives”

Article (text)

Sandra Littletree and Cheryl A. Metoyer, “Knowledge Organization from an Indigenous Perspective: The Mashantucket Pequot Thesaurus of American Indian Terminology Project”
Article (text)

American Philosophical Society CNAIR Guide to the Indigenous Material
Guide to collections (text)

Lau Ā Lau Ka ʻIke, World Indigenous Nations University Hawaii Pasifika
Project website and thesaurus (text)

Indigenous Subject Headings Modifications at Red River College Presentation Video and Text
Presentation (video and text)

First Nations, Métis, and Inuit – Indigenous Ontology
Project website and thesaurus (text)

American Indian Library Association, Subject Access and Classification Committee Wiki
Project website (text)

Decolonizing Classification and Indigenizing Description Presentations from Sorting Libraries Out Symposium 2019
Presentations (video and text)

Hoffman, Nadine, "Controlled Vocabulary and Indigenous Terminology in Canadian Arctic Legal Research"
Article (text)

Decolonizing Cataloging and Classification
Presentation (text)

Karen Smith-Yoshimura, "Strategies for alternate subject headings and maintaining subject headings"
Article (text)

Lougheed et al, "Reconciliation through description: using metadata to realize the vision of the National Research Centre for Truth and Reconciliation."
Article (text)

Vaughan, "The Language of Cataloguing: Deconstructing and Decolonizing Systems of Organization in Libraries"
Article (text)

Hollie C. White, "Decolonizing the Way Libraries Organize"
Article (text)

Deborah Lee, "Indigenous Knowledge Organization: a study of concepts, terminology, structure and (mostly) Indigenous voices"
Article (text)

University of Alberta’s Decolonizing Description project
Presentation (text)

Library of Congress Subject Headings Related to Indigenous Peoples: a Project Changing
LCSH for use in a Canadian Archival Context

Article (text)

Pop-up from South Australian Museum online database
Sample of prefatory text and website (text)

Native American Intellectual Property Issues

Trevor Reed, “Who Owns Our Ancestors’ Voices?”
Article (text)

Jane Anderson and Kimberly Christen, “Decolonizing Attribution”
Article (text)

Traditional Knowledge licenses
Tool (text)

Copying and Repatriation of Records to Native American Communities

Joshua A. Bell, Kimberly Christen, and Mark Turin, “After the Return; Digital Repatriation and the Circulation of Indigenous Knowledge Workshop Report”
Article (text)

Native American Research Protocols

Reciprocal Education and Training

Museum Decolonization Institute
Website (text)

Hawaiʻi Museums Association Cultural Competency webinars
Presentations (video and text)

Awareness of Native American Communities and Issues

K. Webster, Ann M. Doyle, "Don't class me in antiquities! : giving voice to Native American materials"
Article (text)

Digital Atlas of Native American Intellectual Traditions
Project website (text)