SAA’s new Dictionary of Archives Terminology has superseded this Glossary as of 4/29/2020.

Glossary search


This bibliography includes descriptions of the sources of the citations in the body of the glossary. The entries are arranged in standard bibliographic order, by author and title, or by title if the author is unknown. Initial articles (a, an, and the) are disregarded, with entries alphabetized under the next word.

Each citation in the body of the glossary includes a bibliography number following a dagger sign (†) to facilitate locating its entry here. Following the bibliography number, the citation includes a short, mnemonic word or phrase based on author names, key words in the title, or the organization that is responsible for the work. For example, many will recognize the abbreviation USC as the United States Code and CJS as the Corpus Juris Secundum. In some instances, the mnemonic will provide readers with enough context to avoid having to check this bibliography for the full description of the source. For example, a reader may find the mnemonics Duranti, SAA,AACR2, NISO, and CFR sufficient information about the source for their needs, even though it does not indicate the particular document. The mnemonic is followed by the year of publication, if known, and by details locating the citation in the work.


URLs were checked shortly before the glossary went to press in 2005. Active links are identified as available, and resources no longer 'available' are identified as 'formerly available.' While web resources are notoriously unstable, those used in this work are surprisingly persistent. Even when a URL changes, the resource can often be found by searching a key phrase in a search engine or the Internet Archive Wayback Machine.

19th Century American Landscape Painting. Cosmopolis 12 (December 2000).

A Federal Records Management Glossary. National Archives and Records Administration, 1989.

A Framework of Guidance for Building Good Digital Collections. Institute for Museum and Library Services, 2001.

A Manual for Small Archives. Archives Association of British Columbia, 1999.

Available online at

A Survey of Key Concepts and Issues for Electronic Recordkeeping: CTG.MFA-001. Center for Technology in Government, State University of New York at Albany/SUNY, August 1997.

About CENSA [web page]. Collaborative Electronic Notebook Systems Association, n.d.

About NISO [web page]. National Information Standards Organization, 2003.

Available online at

About OCLC [web page]. OCLC, 2004.

Available online at

About the National Archives and Records Service of South Africa [web page]. The Service, n.d.

About the ULAN [web page]. John Paul Getty Trust, 2000.

Abraham, Terry, Archives and Entropy: The Closed System [web page]. February 1999.

Available online at "The concept behind this paper was first presented in the course of a talk on 'Assembling and Organizing a Collection' given at a Local Records Workshop for the Washington State Historical Records Inventory Project, Bellingham, Washington, August 17, 1977. It was subsequently reworked into a publication entitled 'Entropy and archival disorder.' P

Adkins, Elizabeth W., The Development of Business Archives in the United States: An Overview and a Personal Perspective. American Archivist 60:1 (Winter 1997), p. 8–33.

American Association for State and Local History [website]. The Association, 2003.

Available online at

American Jurisprudence: A Modern Comprehensive Text Statement of American Law, State and Federal – 2nd ed. West Group, 1962– .

An Online Guide to Information Technologies and Tools for Transportation Planning. Department of Urban Studies and Planning, Massachusetts Institute of Technology, 1996.

Anglo-American Cataloguing Rules [AACR2] – 2nd ed., revised. American Library Association, Canadian Library Association, Library Association Publishing Limited, 1988.

Appelbaum, Barbara, Criteria for Treatment: Reversibility. Journal of the American Institute for Conservation 26:2 (1987).

Appraisal Methodology. Library and Archives Canada, Information Management Services, Summer 2000.

Archival Research Catalog Glossary. National Archives and Records Administration, n.d.

Available online at

Art and Architecture Thesaurus. John Paul Getty Trust, 2000.

Association of Canadian Archivists [website]. The Association, 1995–2003.

Available online at

Authenticity Task Force Report. The Long-term Preservation of Authentic Electronic Records: Findings of the InterPARES Project [web page]. The Project, n.d.

Ayto, John, Twentieth Century Words. Oxford University Press, 1999.

Bantin, Philip C., Electronic Records Management: A Review of the Work of a Decade and a Reflection on Future Directions. Encyclopedia of Library and Information Science 71:34 (2002).

Bantin, Philip C., Strategies for Managing Electronic Records: A New Archival Paradigm? An Affirmation of Our Archival Traditions? Archival Issues 23:1 (1998), p. 17–34.

Citations from online version, available at

Baron, Jason R., E-mail Metadata in a Post-Armstrong World. Proceedings of the Third IEEE META-DATA Conference, 6–7 April, 1999.

Barth, Christopher D., Archivists, Genealogists, Access, and Automation: Past and Present Trends in Archival Access Technologies and their Implications for the Future of Genealogical Research in Archives [webpage]. 1997.

Basic Concepts for Discussion. Unpublished manuscript for InterPARES2, 2003.

Bastian, Jeannette Allis, A Question of Custody: The Colonial Archives of the United States Virgin Islands. American Archivist 64:1 (Spring/Summer 2001), p. 96–114.

Bearman, David, and Jennifer Trant, Authenticity of Digital Resources: Towards a Statement of Requirements in the Research Process. D-Lib Magazine June 1998.

Bergeron, Bryan, Dark Ages II: When the Digital Data Die. Prentice Hall PTR, 2002.

Berner, Richard C., Archival Theory and Practice in the United States: A Historical Analysis. University of Washington Press, 1983.

Berners-Lee Wins Inaugural Millennium Technology Prize [web page]. Finnish Technology Award Foundation, 15 April 2004.

Bethesda Statement on Open Access Publishing [web page]. 20 June 2003.

Black's Law Dictionary – 7th ed. West, 1999.

Bryan A. Garner, ed.

Boles, Frank, and Mark A. Greene, Et tu Schellenberg? Thoughts on the Dagger of American Appraisal Theory. American Archivist 59:3 (Summer 1996), p. 298–310.

Boudrez, Filip, and Sofie Van den Eynde, DAVID: Archiving Websites. Stadarchief Stad Antwerpen, July 2002.

Bouissac, Paul, editor in chief, Encyclopedia of Semiotics. Oxford University Press, 1998.

Bradsher, James Gregory, The FBI Records Appraisal. Midwestern Archivist 13:2 (1988), p. 51–66.

Republished in Archival Issues 25:1–2 (2000), p. 100–118.

Brichford, Maynard J., Archives and Manuscripts: Appraisal and Accessioning. Society of American Archivists, 1977.

Briston, Heather, Digital Rights Management and Archivists. Archival Outlook July/August 2003, p. 14.

Burke, Frank, The Beginning of the NHPRC Records Program. American Archivist 63:1 (Spring/Summer 2000), p. 18–42.

Bush, Vannevar, As We May Think. The Atlantic Monthly July 1945.

Citations from online version available at

Center for Integrated Pest Management [website]. The Center, n.d.

Available online at

Chamber's Dictionary of Etymology. Chambers, 1988.

Robert K. Barnhart, ed.; Sol Steinmetz, managing ed.

Ciardi, John, A Browser's Dictionary: and Native's Guide to the Unknown American Language. Harper & Row, 1980.

Clanchy, M. T., From Memory to Written Record: England 1066–1307. Blackwell, 1993.

Conway, Paul, Overview: Rationale for Digitization and Preservation. Handbook for Digital Projects: A Management Tool for Preservation and Access. Northeast Document Conservation Center, 2000.

Cook, Terry, Postmodernism and the Practice of Archives. Archivaria 51 (Spring 2001), p. 14–35.

Cook, Terry, The Archival Appraisal of Records Containing Personal Information: A RAMP Study with Guidelines. UNESCO, 1991.

Cook, Terry, The Concept of Archival Fonds and the Post-Custodial Era: Theory, Problems and Solutions. Archivaria 35 (Spring 1993), p. 24–37.

Copyright Issues in Digital Media. United States, Congressional Budget Office, August 2004.

Corpus Juris Secundum: A Contemporary Statement of American Law as Derived from Reported Cases and Legislation. West, 1994.

Cox, Richard, American Archival Analysis: The Recent Development of the Archival Profession in the United States. Scarecrow, 1990.

Cox, Richard, Messrs. Washington, Jefferson, and Gates: Quarrelling About the Preservation of the Documentary Heritage of the United States. First Monday 2:8 (4 August 1997).

Cox, Richard, The Record: Is it Evolving? The Records and Retrieval Report: The Newsletter for Professional Information Managers 10:3 (March 1994), p. 1–16.

Crabb, George M., Crabb's English Synonymes. Grosset & Dunlap, 1917.

With an introduction by John H. Finley.

Craig, Barbara L., and James M. O'Toole, Looking at Archives in Art. American Archivist 63:1 (Spring/Summer 2000), p. 97–123.

DIRKS Manual for Commonwealth Agencies. Archives Advice 50 (April 2001).

Published by the National Archives of Australia. Available online at

Dearstyne, Bruce W., The Archival Enterprise: Modern Archival Principles, Practices, and Techniques. American Library Association, 1992.

Densmore, Christopher, Understanding and Using Early Nineteenth Century Account Books. Archival Issues 25:1-2 (2000), p. 77–89.

Originally published in Midwestern Archivists 5:1 (1980), p. 5–19.

Describing Archives: A Content Standard. Society of American Archivists, 2004.

Dictionary of Computing. Oxford University Press, 1996.

Digimarc Comments to USPTO Regarding Technological Protection Systems for Digitized Copyrighted Works Technology, Education, and Copyright Harmonization (TEACH) Act of 2002. United States, Patent and Trademark Office, 14 January 2003.

Digital Object Standard: Metadata, Content and Encoding [web page]. California Digital Library, 18 May 2001.

Digital Signature Guidelines: Tutorial [web page]. Information Security Committee, Science and Technology Section, American Bar Association, n.d.

Dollar, Charles, Archivists and Records Managers in the Information Age. Archivaria 36 (Autumn 1993), p. 37–52.

Dow, Elizabeth H.; with David R. Chestnutt, William E. Underwood, Helen R. Tibbo, Mary-Jo Kline, and Charlene N. Bickford., The Burlington Agenda: Research Issues in Intellectual Access to Electronically Published Historical Documents. American Archivist 54:2 (Fall/Winter 2001), p. 292–307.

Doyle, Michael, Experiments in Deaccessioning: Archives and On-line Auctions. American Archivist 54:2 (Fall/Winter 2001), p. 350–362.

Dublin Core Metadata Initiative [website]. The Initiative, 1995– .

Available online at

Duff, Wendy, Ensuring the Preservation of Reliable Evidence: A Research Project Funded by the NHPRC. Archivaria 42 (Fall 1996), p. 28–45.

Duff, Wendy, Harnessing the Power of Warrant. American Archivist 61:1 (Spring 1998), p. 88–105.

Duff, Wendy, and Catherine A. Johnson, A Virtual Expression of Need: An Analysis of E-Mail Reference Questions. American Archivist 54:1 (Spring/Summer 2001), p. 43–60.

Duhon, Bryant, Enterprise Content Management: What Is It? Why Should You Care? AIIM E-Doc Magazine 17:6 (November/December 2003).

Duranti, Luciana, Diplomatics: New Uses for an Old Science. Society of American Archivists and Association of Canadian Archivists in association with Scarecrow Press, 1998.

Duranti, Luciana, Origin and Development of the Concept of Archival Description. Archivaria 35 (Spring 1993), p. 47–54.

Duranti, Luciana, Reliability and Authenticity: The Concepts and Their Implications. Archivaria 39 (Spring 1995), p. 5–10.

Duranti, Luciana, Terry Eastwood, and Heather MacNeil, The Preservation of the Integrity of Electronic Records. University of British Columbia, n.d.

Duranti, Luciana, and Heather MacNeil, The Protection of the Integrity of Electronic Records: An Overview of the UBC-MAS Research Project. Archivaria 42 (Fall 1996), p. 46–67.

Durrance, Cynthia J., Authority Control: Beyond a Bowl of Alphabet Soup. Archivaria 35 (Spring 1993), p. 38–46.

Eastwood, Terry, Jenkinson's Writings on Some Enduring Archival Themes. American Archivist 67:1 (Spring/Summer 2004), p. 31–45.

Eastwood, Terry, Nailing a Little Jelly to the Wall of Archival Studies. Archivaria 35 (Spring 1993), p. 232–252.

Eco, Umberto, Serendipities: Language and Lunacy. Columbia University Press, 1998.

Electronic Signatures: A Review of the Exceptions to the Electronic Signatures in Global and National Commerce Act. National Telecommunications and Information Administration, June 2003.

Establishment of an ICA Section on Notarial Records: Statement of Objectives [web page]. International Council on Archives, 2003.

Eusman, Elmer, Iron Gall Ink. The Iron Corrosion Website. European Commission on Preservation and Access, n.d.

Federal Register. United States, Government Printing Office.

Federal Rules of Evidence. United States, Government Printing Office.

Available online through the Cornell Legal Information Institute at

Feeney, Kathleen, Retrieval of Archival Finding Aids Using World-Wide-Web Search Engines. American Archivist 62:2 (Fall 1999), p. 206–228.

File Transfer Protocol: RFC 959 [web page]. W3C Network Working Group, 1985, 1994.

Filing Systems. [web page]. Texas State Library and Archives Commission, 1998.

Fowler, H. W., Fowler's Modern English Usage. – 2nd ed. Oxford University Press, 1965.

Revised and edited by Sir Ernest Gowers.

Fox, Michael J., and Peter L. Wilkerson, Introduction to Archival Organization and Description. Getty Information Institute, 1998.

Functional Requirements for Evidence in Recordkeeping. School of Information Sciences, University of Pittsburgh; 1996.

GILS: Global Information Locator Service. [website].

Available online at

Garlick, Karen, Archives Preservation Update: Holdings Maintenance: An Overview. The Book and Paper Group Annual 11 (1992).

Garner, Bryan A., A Dictionary of Modern Legal Usage. Oxford, 1995.

Garner, Bryan A., Garner's Modern American Usage. Oxford, 2003.

Gartrell, Ellen G., Some Things We Have Learned . . . : Managing Advertising Archives for Business and Non-Business Users. American Archivist 60:1 (Winter 1997), p. 56–70.

George Feltenstein and Ned Price of Warner Bros. on Making Truly Classic DVDs. Barnes & [website]., August 2003.

Gilliland-Swetland, Anne J., Enduring Paradigm, New Opportunities: The Value of the Archival Perspective in the Digital Environment. CLIR, February 2000.

Gilliland-Swetland, Anne J., Maintaining and Providing Access to Electronic Evidence: The US Experience. Presented at the Preservation of Digital Records in the Information Society, the Information Society Commission and the National Archives, Dublin Castle, 28 August 2000.

Gilliland-Swetland, Anne J., and Philip B. Eppard, Preserving the Authenticity of Contingent Digital Objects: The InterPARES Project. D-Lib Magazine 6:7/8 (July/August 2000).

Glossary of Document Technologies: ANSI/AIIM TR2-1998. AIIM, 1998.

Glossary of Terms Related to the Archiving of Audiovisual Materials. UNESCO, 2001.

Prepared by a working group from the Round Table on Audiovisual Records. Gerald Gibson, General Compiler and Editor. Sven Allerstrand, Translator Coordinator.

Goerler, Raimund E., Archives in Controversy: The Press, the Documentaries, and the Byrd Archives. American Archivist 62:2 (Fall 1999), p. 307–324.

Greene, Mark A., 'The Surest ProofÕ: The Use of Business Records and Implications for Appraisal. Archivaria 45 (Spring 1998), p. 157.

Greene, Mark A., A Brief and Opinionated History of Archival Appraisal Theory. Unpublished manuscipt, 1998.

Greene, Mark A., Frank Boles, Bruce Bruemmer, Todd J. Daniels-Howell, The Archivist's New Clothes; or, the Naked Truth about Evidence, Transactions, and Recordness. University of Michigan Sawyer Seminar (Winter 2001).

Available online at

Guercio, Maria, Principles, Methods, and Instruments for the Creation, Preservation, and Use of Archival Records in the Digital Environment. American Archivist 64:2 (Fall/Winter 2001), p. 238–269.

Guide to the Records of the United States Senate: Appendix E, Glossary of Legislative and Archival Terms. National Archives and Records Administration, 1989.

Available online at Based on Robert W. Coren, Mary Rephlo, David Kepley, and Charles South, Guide to the Records of the United States Senate at the National Archives, 1789–1989: Bicentennial Edition (Doct. No. 100–42), (National Archives and Records Administration, 1989).

Guidelines for the Construction, Format, and Maintenance of Monolingual Thesauri. ANSI/NISO, 1993.

Ham, F. Gerald, Selecting and Appraising Archives and Manuscripts. Society of American Archivists, 1993.

Harris, Kenneth E., and Chandru J. Shahani, Mass Deacidification: An Initiative to Refine the Diethyl Zinc Process. Library of Congress, 1994.

Harrod, Leonard Montague, The Librarians' Glossary of Terms Used in Librarianship, Documentation, and the Book Crafts and Reference Book. Westview, 1978.

Harvey, Miles, The Island of Lost Maps: A True Story of Geographic Crime. Random House, 2000.

Hayworth, Kent M., The Voyage of RAD: From the Old World to the New. Archivaria 35 (Spring 1993), p. 55–63.

Hazard, Gerald C., Jr., and Michele Taruffo, American Civil Procedure: An Introduction. Yale University Press, 1993.

Cited in Black's Law Dictionary – 7th ed. West, 1999.

Hengemihle, Frank H., Norman Weberg, and Chandru J. Shahani, Desorption of Residual Ethylene Oxide from Fumigated Library Materials. Library of Congress, November 1995.

Preservation Research and Testing Series No. 9502. Available online at

Henry, Linda J., Schellenberg in Cyberspace. American Archivist 61:2 (Fall 1998), p. 309–327.

Hensen, Steven L., Archives, Personal Papers, and Manuscripts: A Cataloging Manual for Archival Repositories, Historical Societies, and Manuscript Libraries – 2nd ed. (Society of American Archivists, 1989).

Hensen, Steven L., The First Shall Be First: APPM and Its Impacts on American Archival Description. Archivaria 35 (Spring 1993), p. 64–70.

Hickerson, H. Thomas, Archives & Manuscripts: An Introduction to Automated Access. Society of American Archivists, 1981.

Part of the SAA Basic Manual Series.

Hirtle, Peter B., Archival Authenticity in a Digital Age. Authenticity in a Digital Environment. Council on Library and Information Resources, 2000, p. 8–23.

Holmes, Oliver W., Archival Arrangement – Five Different Operations at Five Different Levels. Modern Archives Reader: Basic Readings on Archival Theory and Practice. National Archives and Records Service, 1984, p. 162–180.

Edited by Maygene F. Daniels and Timothy Walch.

Horrigan, David, Court Documents: Will They Age Well? [web page], 17 February 2003.

Hunter, David, et al., Beginning XML. Wrox Press, 2000.

HyperText Markup Language (HTML) Homepage [web page]. World Wide Web Consortium, 1995–2003.

Available online at

ICA in Brief [web page]. International Council on Archives, n.d.

ISAD(G): General International Standard Archival Description. International Council on Archives, 2000.

ISSN and the Key Title [web page]. ISSN, n.d.

ITU Announces New Edition of X.509 Recommendation . . . [web page]. International Telecommunications Union, 31 March 2000.

Identity & Access Management: Transforming e-Security into a Catalyst for Competitive Advantage [website]. RSA Security, 2003.

Images in Time: A Century of Photography at the Alhambra, 1840–1940. Patronato de la Alhambra y Generalife, 2003.

In Answer to Your Query: Fair Use. Copyright Office, Library of Congress, 1999.

FL 102. Available online at

Information Management Terminology. Unpublished manuscript from Ford Motor Company.

Information Management: Challenges in Managing and Preserving Electronic Records: GAO-02-586. United States, Government Accounting Office, 2002.

Information Technology – Computer Graphics – Metafile for the Storage and Transfer of Picture Description Information : ISO/IEC 8632 [web page]. ISO, 1999.

Institute of Certified Records Managers [website]. The Institute, 2003.

Available online at

InterPARES Terminology Cross. Unpublished manuscript.

InterPARES: International Research on Permanent Authentic Records in Electronic Systems [website]. The Project, 2002.

Available online at

International Center of Photography Encyclopedia of Photography. The Center, 1984.

International Conference of the Round Table on Archives (CITRA) [web page]. International Council on Archives, n.d.

Internet Security Glossary: RFC 2828 [web page]., 2000.

Intrinsic Value in Historical Material. National Archives and Records Administration, 1982.

James, Caryn, Split-screen images grabbing attention. 12 January 2004.

Jansen, Eric, NetLingo: The Internet Dictionary. NetLingo, 2002.

Jenkinson, Hilary, A Manual of Archive Administration. Percy Lund, Humphries, 1966.

Jimerson, Randall C., Review of James M. O'Toole Records of American Business. Economic History Services Book Reviews., 11 May 1998.

Johnson, Gary, Forbidden Fruit: The Golden Age of the Exploitation Film [book review]. Images: A Journal of Film and Popular Culture Issue 8 (1999).

Johnston, Pete, and Bridget Robinson, Collections and Collection Description. Collection Description Focus Briefing Paper 1. UKOLN, January 2002.

Jones, Bernard E., ed., Encyclopedia of Photography. Arno, 1974.

Reprint of the 1911 ed. published as Cassell's Cyclopedia of Photography.

Kaplan, Elisabeth, We Are What We Collect, We Collect What We Are: Archives and the Construction of Identity. American Archivist 63:1 (Spring/Summer 2000), p. 125–151.

Kline, Mary-Jo, A Guide to Documentary Editing. – 2nd ed. Johns Hopkins University Press, 1998.

Klopfer, Lisa, Oral History and Archives in New South Africa: Methodological Issues. Archivaria 52 (Fall 2001), p. 100-125.

Knowles, Elizabeth, with Julia Elliot, The Oxford Dictionary of New Words. Oxford University Press, 1997.

Krizack, Joan D., Documentation Planning for the U.S. Health Care System. Johns Hopkins University Press, 1994.

LOCKSS [website]. Stanford University, n.d.

Available online at

Lancaster, F. W., Indexing and Abstracting in Theory and Practice – 2nd ed. University of Illinois Graduate School of Library and Information Science, 1998.

Laura Zublake v. UBS Warburg LLC, UBS Warburg, UBS AG: Opinion and Order 02 Civ. 1243 (SAS). U.S. District Court, Southern District of New York, 22 October 2003.

Opinion of Justice Shira A. Scheindlin. Available online at

LeFurgy, William G., PDF-A: A New Digital Preservation Format. Government Record News: The Newsletter of the Government Records Section of the Society of American Archivists May–June 2003.

Leggio, Angeletta, Hilary Berthon, and Colin Webb, A National Cellulose Acetate Search? Presented to the First National Symposium, Book and Paper Group, AICCM, Canberra, March 2000.

Lemieux, Victoria L., Let the Ghosts Speak: An Empirical Exploration of the 'Nature' of the Record. Archivaria 51 (Spring 2001), p. 81–111.

Lessig, Lawrence, Some Like It Hot. Wired 12:3 (March 2004), p. 102–103.

Levy, David M., Digital Libraries and the Problem of Purpose. D-Lib 6:1 (January 2000).

Levy, David M., Scrolling Forward: Making Sense of Documents in the Digital Age. Arcade, 2001.

Levy, Steven, Crypto: How the Code Rebels Beat the Government – Saving Privacy in the Digital Age. Viking, 2001.

Levy, Trudy, Visual Resources Association – The Resource for Visual Information. D-Lib Magazine 8:2 (February 2002)

Library of Congress. Network Development and MARC Standards Office, MARC 21: Harmonized USMARC and CAN/MARC [web page]. Library of Congress, 1998.

Linard, Laura, and Brent M. Sverdloff, Not Just Business as Usual: Evolving Trends in Historical Research at Baker Library. American Archivist 60:1 (Winter 1997), p. 88–98.

Long, Tony, It's Just the 'internet' Now. Wired News 16 August 2004.

Lubar, Steven, Information Culture and the Archival Record. American Archivist 62:1 (Spring 1999), p. 10–22.

Lynch, Clifford A., Authenticity and Integrity in the Digital Environment: An Exploratory Analysis of the Central Role of Trust. Authenticity in a Digital Environment Council on Library and Information Resources, 2000.

Lynch, Clifford A., Institutional Repositories: Essential Infrastructure for Scholarship in the Digital Age. ARL Bimonthly Report 226 (February 2003).

Lynch, Jack, Guide to Literary and Rhetorical Terms [website]. The author, 1999.

METS: An Overview & Tutorial [web page]. Library of Congress, 18 July 2003.

MacNeil, Heather, Metadata Strategies and Archival Description: Comparing Apples to Oranges. Archivaria 39 (Spring 1995), p. 22–32.

MacNeil, Heather, Trusting Records in a Post-Modern World [web page]. Institute for Advanced Technology in the Humanities, May 2002.

Presentation at the University of Virginia. Available online at

MacNeil, Heather, Trusting Records: Legal, Historical, and Diplomatic Perspectives. Kluwer, 2000.

Quoted in Richard Cox. "Rediscovering the Document: Three Recent Views." Records & Information Management Report 18:3 (March 2002), p. 1–13.

Maher, William J., Archives, Archivists, and Society. American Archivist 61:2 (Fall 1998), p. 252–265.

Incoming presidential address delivered 30 August 1997.

Management of Electronic Records: Issues and Guidelines. Advisory Committee for the Co-ordination of Information Systems, United Nations, 1990.

Manuscript Division Publications [web page]. Manuscripts Division, Library of Congress, 1997.

Text from Library of Congress Acquisitions: Manuscripts, 1994–95 (the Library, 1997). Available online at

McCrank, Lawrence J., Historical Information Science: An Emerging Unidiscipline. Information Today, 2002.

McCullagh, Adrian, and William Caelli, Non-Repudiation in the Digital Environment. First Monday 5:8 (August 2000).

McGovern, Timothy J., and Helen W. Samuels, Our Institutional Memory at Risk. Cause/Effect 20:3 (Fall 1997), p. 19 ff.

McIntyre v. Ohio Elections Commission 514 US 334. United States, Supreme Court, 19 April 1995.

McRanor, Shauna, A Critical Analysis of Intrinsic Value. American Archivist 59:4 (Fall 1996), p. 400–411.

Miller, Frederic M., Arranging and Describing Archives and Manuscripts. Society of American Archivists, 1990.

Monmonier, Mark, How to Lie with Maps – 2nd ed. University of Chicago Press, 1996.

Moody, Glyn, The Greatest OS That (N)ever Was (continued). Wired 5:8 (August 1997).

Moore, Reagan W., Workshop on Research Challenges in Digital Archiving [web page]. San Diego Super Computing Center, 2003.

More about IFLA [web page]. International Federation of Library Associations and Institutions, 23 April 2004.

NASCIO [website]. National Association of State Chief Information Officers, n.d.

Available online at

NFACE Project Overview: Purpose, Goals, and Activities: Final Report. COSHRC and AASLH, July 2002.

NHPRC Strategic Plan [web page]. National Archives and Records Administration, 19 June 1997.

NTSC (National Television Systems Committee) Dictionary @ AudioVideo101 [web page]., n.d.

NUCMC Frequently Asked Questions [website]. Library of Congress, 23 September 2002.

Nadeau, Luis, Encyclopedia of Printing, Photographic, and Photomechanical Processes. Atelier Luis Nadeau, 1990.

National Archives and Records Administration [website]. The agency, n.d.

Available online a

National Association of Government Archives and Records Administrators [website]. The Association, n.d.

Available online at

Nelson, Theodore Holm, Xanalogical Structure, Needed Now More than Ever: Parallel Documents, Deep Links to Content, Deep Versioning and Deep Re-Use [web page]., [23 May 2000?].

Nevada Information Management Community Glossary. Nevada State Library and Archives, 29 August 2001.

New Orleans Notarial Archives [web page]. New Orleans Notarial Archives, 2000–2004.

Available online at

Newhall, Beaumont, The History of Photography: From 1839 to the Present – revised and enlarged ed. Museum of Modern Art, 1982.

O'Toole, James M., 'Commendatory Letters': An Archival Reading of the Venerable Bede. American Archivist 61:2 (Fall 1998), p. 266–286.

OASIS [website]. Organization for the Advancements of Structured Information Standards, n.d.

Available online at

OCLC/RLG Working Group on Preservation Metadata, Preservation Metadata for Digital Objects: A Review of the State of the Art. OCLC/RLG, 31 January 2001.

A White Paper by the OCLC/RLG Working Group on Preservation Metadata. Available online at

Olsen, Stefanie, Yahoo crawls deep into the Web [webpage]. CNET, 2 March 2004.

Open Archives Initiative [website]. The Initiative, n.d.

Website available at

Open Source [website]. Open Source Initiative, 2003.

Available online at

Our Culture, Our Future: Indigenous Cultural and Intellectual Property Rights. Michael Frankel & Company and Terri Janke, 1998.

Papers / Files / Records / Archives: Advice for Clerks, and for Custodians of Record [web page]. Library Committee of Quaker Life, March 2003.

Parezo, Nancy, Preserving Anthropology's Heritage: CoPAR, Anthropological Records, and the Archival Community. American Archivist 62:2 (Fall 1999), p. 271–306.

Park, Eun G., Understanding 'Authenticity' in Records and Information Management: Analyzing Practitioner Constructs. American Archivist 64:2 (Fall/Winter 2001), p. 270–291.

Pederson, Ann, ed., Keeping Archives. Australian Society of Archivists, 1987.

Performance Guideline for the Legal Acceptance of Records Produced by Information Technology Systems. Association for Information and Image Management, 1992.

Permanence of Paper for Publications and Documents in Libraries and Archives. NISO, 1992.

Personal communication with the author.

Petroski, Henry, The Book on the Bookshelf. Alfred A. Knopf, 1999.

Pitti, Daniel V., Creator Description: Encoded Archival Context. Authority Control: Definition and International Experiences. Florence, Italy; 10–12 February 2003.

Pitti, Daniel V., Encoded Archival Description: An Introduction and Overview. D-Lib Magazine 5:11 (November 1999).

Pork, Henk J., Rate of Paper Degradation: The Predictive Value of Artificial Aging Tests. European Commission on Preservation and Access, 2000.

Position Statement on Diversity [web page]. Society of American Archivists, 1999.

Preserving Email. Digital Preservation Testbed, The Hague 2003.

Part of the series From Digital Volatility to Digital Permanence. Available online at The Digital Preservation Testbed is an initiative of the Dutch National Archives and the Dutch Ministry of the Interior and Kingdom Relations.


Principles of Institutional Evaluation Society of American Archivists, n.d.

Privacy and Public Records [web page]. Electronic Privacy Information Center, 28 April 2003.

Puglia, Steven, Jeffrey Reed, and Erin Rhodes, Technical Guidelines for Digitizing Archival Materials for Electronic Access: Creation of Production Master Files – Raster Images. National Archives and Records Administration, 2004.

Puglia, Steven, Reformatting and Copying Architectural Records. Architectural Records Conference Report. Conservation Center for Art and Historic Artifacts, 2000.

Quass, Annemarie, Data warehousing principles for the strategic management of information: A synthesis of contemporary practices, theories and principles. South African Business Review December 2000.

RDF Primer [web page]. W3C, 2003.

Available online at

RFC 2396 : Uniform Resource Identifiers (URI) : Generic Syntax. The Internet Society, 1998.

Ralston, Anthony, ed., Encyclopedia of Computer Science – 1st ed. Van Nostrand Reinhold, 1976.

Rare Books and Manuscript Section [website]. Association of College and Research Libraries.

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[InterPARES 2 Project Description.]

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