Chapter 2 Identity Elements

2.1 Reference Code (Required)

Purpose and Scope

This element provides a unique identifier for the unit being described. The identifier may consist of three subelements: a local identifier, a code for the repository, and a code for the country.

Commentary: This typically alphanumeric identifier frequently serves as a succinct local means of referring to the materials. When delivering a descriptive record outside of the repository holding the materials, this element should also contain a nationally sanctioned code for the repository and an internationally standardized code for the country in which the repository is located. Taken together, these three subelements form a unique machine-readable identifier for the materials being described.

  • The local identifier code is a means of gaining access to the description of the materials or to the documents themselves. Determining the structure and function(s) of a local identifier code are matters of institutional policy. Examples of local identifiers include accession numbers, record group numbers, and call numbers.
  • The repository identifier code is required only for purposes of consortial, national, or international exchange. The full name of the institution is recorded in the Name and Location of Repository Element (2.2).
  • The country identifier code is required only for purposes of consortial, national, or international exchange.

Sources of Information

2.1.1 The codes for country and repository are taken from national and international code lists. Repositories should develop a local system that uniquely identifies discrete materials.

General Rules

2.1.2 Record a reference code that consists of a local identifier, a repository identifier, and a country identifier in accordance with the following rules.

Local Identifier

2.1.3 At the highest level of a multilevel description or in a single level description, provide a unique identifier for the materials being described in accordance with the institution’s administrative control system. Optionally, devise unique identifiers at lower levels of a multilevel description.

95-24

Records collection identifier, Gay, Lesbian, Bisexual, Transgender Historical Society

MC22

Personal papers collection identifier, Scripps Institute of Oceanography Archives

632

Manuscript group identifier, Manuscripts and Archives, Yale University Library

79-GC-2-134

Record group, series, album, and item identifier, National Archives and Records Administration

UAV 605 (AS81)

http://nrs.harvard.edu/urn-3:RAD.SCHL.WAX:4740894

MC 666 E. 1

Repository Identifier

2.1.4 Provide a repository code assigned by the national organization responsible for assigning and maintaining repository identifiers.1

CUI

Repository code for the University of California, Irvine Libraries

TxU-Hu

Repository code for the Harry Ransom Humanities Research Center, The University of Texas at Austin

Country Identifier

2.1.5 Provide a country code for the location of the repository as assigned by the International Standards Organization.2 

US

Code for the United States

Ca

Code for Canada



[1] The Library of Congress is responsible for assigning repository codes and maintaining the list of assigned codes in the United States. National repository codes are constructed in accordance with the latest version of ISO 15511 (International Standard identifier for libraries and related organizations).

[2] The two-character country code is found in the latest version of ISO 3166-1 (Codes for the representation of names of countries and their subdivisions). While EAD requires the use of the ISO 3166-1 standard for names of countries, the MARC 21 standard has not yet adopted this code list. Use the code appropriate to the output system for a given description. The MARC Code List for Countries is used in archival cataloging (e.g., mixed materials) to indicate the country of the repository in the 008 field.

2.2 Name and Location of Repository (Required)

Purpose and Scope

This element identifies the name and location of the repository that holds the materials being described.

Commentary: It may be possible for a system to generate the name of the repository from the repository identifier as specified in Rule 2.1.4.

Sources of Information

2.2.1 Take the information from institutional policies and procedures.

General Rules

2.2.2 Explicitly state the name of the repository, including any parent bodies.

The University of Texas at Austin, Harry Ransom Humanities Research Center

The Minnesota Historical Society

2.2.3 Provide the location of the repository. If desirable, include the mailing address and other contact information.

Alabama Department of Archives and History. 624 Washington Avenue, Montgomery, AL 36130-0100. (334) 242-4435.

2.3 Title (Required)

Purpose and Scope

This element provides a word or phrase by which the material being described is known or can be identified. A title may be devised or formal.

Commentary: A devised title is one provided by the archivist when there is no formal title for the materials being described or when the formal title is misleading or inadequate. The rules for recording a devised title differ from the rules for recording a formal title. Archivists usually devise titles for archival materials.

Devised titles generally have two parts:

  • the name of the creator(s) or collector(s)
  • the nature of the materials being described

A formal title is one that appears prominently on or in the materials being described and is most commonly found in material that has been published or distributed, such as a title on a book, report, map, or film. Formal titles can also be found on unpublished material that bears a meaningful name consciously given by the creator of the material, (e.g., a caption on a photograph, label on a folder, or leader on a film).

In the absence of a meaningful formal title, a title must be devised. The archivist must use professional judgment to determine when it is appropriate to devise a title rather than transcribe a label on a container that may be misleading. When they occur at all in archival materials, formal titles are most commonly found on files or items.

Sources of Information

2.3.1 When devising a title, take the information from any reliable source, including the internal evidence of the materials being described, an external source such as a records schedule or communication with a donor, or a title on another copy or version of the materials being described.

2.3.2 When recording a formal title, transcribe the information according to the appropriate standard. Some companion standards are suggested in Appendix B. Rules for transcribing formal titles are not provided here.

General Rules

2.3.3 When devising title information, compose a brief title1 that uniquely identifies the material, normally consisting of a name segment, a term indicating the nature of the unit being described,2 and optionally a topical segment as instructed in the following rules. Do not enclose devised titles in square brackets.

Commentary:

  • In multilevel descriptions the name segment may be inherited from a higher level of description and may not need to be explicitly stated at lower levels.
  • When the repository is responsible for assembling a collection, provide, as part of the devised title, the institution's name as the collector.
  • The topical segment should be used only when the identification of the material cannot be made clear from the name and nature elements.

Name Segment

2.3.4 Record the name(s) of the person(s), family (families), or corporate body3 predominantly responsible for the creation, assembly, accumulation, and/or maintenance of the materials.

Graciany Miranda Archilla

Bacot family

Bank of Cape Fear (Wilmington, N.C.) Hillsboro Branch

Wisconsin Environmental Policy Act

Cameron family

Caroline and Erwin Swann

University of California, Santa Barbara Office of Public Information

Oregon Dept. of Fish and Wildlife Northeast Region

2.3.5 Record the name(s) in the form by which the creator or collector is generally known.4 Record the name(s) in the natural language order of the language of the person’s or corporate body’s country of residence or activity or the official language of the corporate body. The name may be abbreviated if a fuller form of the name appears elsewhere in the descriptive record (e.g., in the administrative/biographical history) or as an access point.

Bessye J. Bearden

as opposed to the controlled form, “Bearden, Bessye J.”

WAPOR

The controlled form World Association for Public Opinion Research appears in the Name of Creator(s) Element.

2.3.6 If the name of the creator, assembler, or collector is not known, do not record a name. In such cases, devise the nature of the archival materials for the title as instructed in rules 2.3.18–2.3.20 and 2.3.22.

Collection of San Francisco Graft Prosecution Records

Performing Arts publications collection

Name Segment for More Than One Person

2.3.7 If three or fewer persons are credited with, or predominantly responsible for, the creation of the materials as a whole, record their names in direct order. The person who was responsible for the creation of the greatest part of the materials should be listed first. If no such determination can be made, the names should be listed in alphabetical order.

John and Leni Sinclair papers

Eugenia Rawls and Donald Seawell theater collection

2.3.8 If responsibility for the creation of the materials is dispersed among more than three persons, record the name of the individual whose material predominates. If this does not apply, choose the name considered most appropriate.

2.3.9 Optionally, include all the names of the persons who are credited with or predominantly responsible for the creation of the materials.

Name Segment for Families

2.3.10 If the materials were created, assembled, accumulated, and/or used in the context of familial relations by individuals who share a common surname, record that name followed by the word family.

Harvey family papers

Grieg family photographs

2.3.11 If the materials were created, assembled, accumulated, and/or used in the context of familial relations by individuals who do not share a common surname, record all their names followed by the word family.

Paul Hibbet Clyde and Mary Kestler family papers

2.3.12 Optionally, if the materials were created, assembled, accumulated, and/or used in the context of familial relations but one person’s material predominates, record that person’s full name followed by the word family.

Andrew Swanson family papers

2.3.13 If two or three families are credited with, or predominantly responsible for, the creation of the materials, record all the family names followed by the word families.

Short, Harrison, and Symmes families papers

2.3.14 If responsibility for the creation of the materials is dispersed among more than three families, record only the name of the family whose material predominates. If no one family’s material predominates, choose the name considered most appropriate.

Young family papers

Collection material predominantly from the Young family of Paw Paw, Michigan, but also relates to Butler, Carpenter, Comstock, and Goodrich families. Example from the Department of Special Collections, Davidson Library, University of California, Santa Barbara.

2.3.15 Optionally, include all the names of the families who are credited with, or predominantly responsible for, the creation of the materials.

Clement, Balinger, Logan, and Stiles family papers

Collection title from the Camden County Historical Society.

Name Segment for Corporate Bodies

Single corporate body see Rule 2.3.4.

More than one corporate body 

2.3.16 If the records of more than one corporate body are included in the materials, record only one name in the title. Establish a consistent policy for selecting the name of the corporate body to be used in the title. While the name of only one corporate body can be included in the title, names of other corporate bodies whose records are included in the materials may be recorded in the Name of Creator(s) Element as specified in Rule 2.6.7.

British American Tobacco Company records

This body of corporate records includes records of Cameron and Cameron, D. B. Tennant and Company, David Dunlop, Export Leaf Tobacco Company, and T. C. Williams Company, all of which were tobacco exporting companies acquired by British American Tobacco Company.

Corporate body whose name has changed

2.3.17 Where the name of the corporate body has changed, use the last (latest) name of the corporate body represented in the materials being described. Predecessor names of the corporate body may be recorded in the Name of Creator(s) Element as specified in Rule 2.6.7.

University of California, Irvine, Office of Research and Graduate Studies records

These records include those from this same body under two previous names, Graduate Division (1964–1981) and Division of Graduate Studies and Research (1981–1987).

Allied Theatres of Michigan records

These materials include records of this same body under its earlier name, Motion Picture Theatre Owners of Michigan (name changed in 1931).

2.3.18 Optionally, where the name of the corporate body has changed, use the name under which the bulk of the material was created.

Nature of the Archival Unit

2.3.19 Archival materials are frequently described by devised aggregate terms such as papers (for personal materials), records (for organizational materials), or collection (for topical aggregations). However, other terms are also used. The term(s) used to describe the nature of archival materials should be comprehensible to the institution’s patrons. Titles should be constructed in a coherent and consistent format according to the rules of the individual institution.

Coalition to Stop Trident records

St. Paul African Methodist Episcopal Zion Church records

Mortimer Jerome Adler papers

Allyn Kellogg Ford collection of historical manuscripts

Semans family papers

2.3.20 Where the materials being described consist solely of one or two specific forms, supply those form(s)5 for the nature of the archival unit. Express the forms in their order of predominance.

English Stage Company at the Royal Court Theatre correspondence

John E. Brennan outdoor advertising survey reports

William Gedney photographs and writings

Troy Kinney etchings and engravings

Sarah Dyer zine collection

Andrew Jackson letter

John Kenyon Chapman files

Speeches

Devised title for a series within the Bessye J. Bearden papers

Audio and video recordings

Devised title for a series within the Jacques Derrida papers

National Academy of Sciences correspondence

Devised title for a file within the Frederick Reines papers

Council for Refugee Rights correspondence and reports

Devised title for a file within the Project Ngoc records

2.3.21 Optionally, if one or two specific forms predominate but there are also other material types present, record the one or two most predominant forms followed by the phrase “and other material” in the devised title and indicate the specific forms of material in the Scope and Content Element.

James M. Woodbury diary, letters, and other material

Sociedad Amigos de Arteaga, Inc., correspondence, flyers, and other material

Devised title for a file within the Genoveva de Arteaga papers

Topic of the Archival Unit

2.3.22 Optionally, devise a brief term or phrase that most precisely and concisely characterizes the unit being described. The term or phrase should incorporate the form(s) of material that typifies the unit and reflects the function, activity, transaction, subject, individuals, or organizations that were the basis of its creation or use.

Clarence McGehee collection on Ruth St. Denis

Catherine Clarke civil rights collection

Collection of California vacation albums

Devised title for a collection of purchased vacation albums assembled by Special Collections and Archives, University of California, Irvine

Russian referendum collection

Devised title for a collection of materials on the 1993 Russian referendum in support of the policies of Boris Yeltsin that was assembled by Manuscripts and Archives, Yale University

Land agreements between the University of California and the Irvine Company

Edith Wharton correspondence with Morton Fullerton

Oneida Nation petition to Jasper Parrish

Frank and Frances Robinson files on Upper Newport Bay

Correspondence regarding graduate assistantships

James Joyce letter to Maurice Saillet

Richard Nixon letter to H. R. Haldeman regarding the Watergate break-in

2.3.23 When the subject of the collection is a person, and if no name has been recorded because the repository is the collector, express the title of the collection in a way that clearly indicates that the subject of the collection is not the collector.

Collection on Isadora Duncan

The collection is about Isadora Duncan; she is not the collector.

Collection of Robert Browning materials

 The collection comprises materials by Robert Browning; he is not the collector.


[1] The devised title should not be mistaken for a statement or abstract of the content of the unit being described; the devised title simply names the unit as succinctly as possible. The contents of the unit, e.g., that of an individual letter, should be described in the Scope and Content Element.

[2] The order of these elements is not prescribed.

[3] The name of more than one person or family can appear in the title; however, the name of only one corporate body can appear in the title.

[4] Guidance for choosing between different names of persons (including name changes) or between variant forms of the same name can be found in Chapter 12 (rules 12.1–12.3). Guidance for choosing between different names of corporate bodies or between variant forms of the same name can be found in Chapter 14 (rules 14.1–14.3).

[5] Form means the physical (e.g., watercolor, drawing) or intellectual (e.g., diary, journal, daybook, minute book) characteristics of a document. Repositories are strongly encouraged to use standardized vocabulary when describing form(s) of material as part of the devised title.

2.4 Date (Required)

Purpose and Scope

This element identifies and records the date(s) that pertain to the creation, assembly, accumulation, and/or maintenance and use of the materials being described. This element describes types of dates and forms of dates.

Commentary: It may be useful or necessary for archivists to record different types of dates for the materials being described, including:

Date(s) of creation are the dates that the documents in the unit being described were originally created (e.g., date of writing a letter, drawing a map, or painting a portrait) or the date that an event or image was captured in some material form (e.g., date that a photograph was taken, sound was originally recorded, or a film was shot). Dates of creation refer only to the activity of creation of individual documents that make up each unit (as opposed to the “creation” of an aggregate such as a series or file). This is the type of date recorded most often by archivists and manuscript catalogers not describing government or organizational records.

Date(s) of record-keeping activity are the dates during which the unit being described was created, assembled, accumulated, and/or maintained and used as a unit in the conduct of affairs by the organization or individual responsible for its provenance. They are distinct from the dates of creation of individual documents. Although the dates of record-keeping activity may often coincide with the dates of creation, the date types differ in two ways. First, the date(s) of record-keeping activity refer to the dates of a number of interrelated activities (including, but not limited to, creation and accumulation); and second, the activities pertain to the unit as a whole as opposed to individual documents. Records may be accumulated and used for a current purpose long after they were originally created, for example, where much earlier records are assembled to support an investigation or a legal action.

When dates of creation and dates of record-keeping activity are the same, record only the former. Dates of record-keeping activity are most often recorded by archivists working with government records, organizational archives, or other materials where it is important to account for functions and activities.

Date(s) of publication are recorded if the unit being described is a commercially issued or mass-produced item. Record this date information (including dates of publishing, distributing, releasing, and issuing of items) according to rules in various chapters of RDA or other appropriate standards (see Appendix B). Dates of publication are most often recorded when describing items.

Date(s) of broadcast are dates on which sound recordings or moving image materials were broadcast on radio or television. Record this date information according to rules in various chapters of RDA or other appropriate standards (see Appendix B). Dates of broadcast are most often recorded when describing items.

Exclusions

2.4.1 If the material being described is a reproduction, record the details about the reproduction, including the date(s) of reproduction, if known, in the Scope and Content Element (Rule 3.1.7). If the material being described is the original and the repository wishes to provide details about the availability of copies, record that information in the Existence and Location of Copies Element (6.2).

Sources of Information

2.4.2 Take the information from any reliable source, including the internal evidence of the materials being described.

General Rules

2.4.3 Record dates of creation, record-keeping activity, publication, or broadcast as appropriate to the materials being described.

2.4.4 Alternatively, if relevant and deemed necessary by the repository and if the descriptive system permits it, record multiple types of dates, labeling each clearly.1 When recording multiple date types, explain each in the Scope and Content Element (3.1).

2.4.5 Record the year(s) in Western-style Arabic numerals. If the date found in or on the unit being described is not of the Gregorian or Julian calendar, record the date as found in a note, specifying the name of the calendar, such as Republican, Jewish, Chinese, in a note (see Rule 7.1.2).

1968

Note: Date on item is 2628, which is dated in accordance with the Chinese calendar.

1805

Note: Date on item is an 14, which is dated in accordance with the French Republican calendar.

2.4.6 Record the date(s) of the unit being described either as a range, series, or a single date.

1801,1929

1980-2001

1776

Date Ranges

Inclusive Dates

2.4.7 If the materials in the unit or the record-keeping activity relating to the unit being described span a period of time, always record the inclusive dates, that is, the earliest and latest dates of the materials or activity in question.

1849-1851

2.4.8 When further accruals are expected, record the inclusive dates pertaining to the holdings currently in the custody of the repository. Record information about expected accruals in the Accruals Element (5.4). When the accruals are received, revise the date information accordingly.

1979-1993

not 1979-

not 1979-(ongoing)

2.4.9 The date(s) of a unit being described must fall within the range of dates of the unit of which it forms a part. This rule applies to both dates of creation and dates of record-keeping activity.

1934-1985

Dates of record-keeping activity for a body of corporate records

1945-1960

Dates of record-keeping activity for a series within the above

1950-1955

Dates of record-keeping activity for a file within the above

Predominant or Bulk Dates

2.4.10 Optionally, where the dates pertaining to the majority of the documents in the unit being described differ significantly from the inclusive dates, provide predominant or bulk dates. Specify them as such, preceded by the word predominant or bulk. Never provide predominant or bulk dates without also providing inclusive dates.

1785-1960, bulk 1916-1958

1942-1998, predominant 1975-1991

2.4.11 Optionally, if there is a significant gap in the chronological sequence of the documents in the unit being described, where providing predominant/bulk dates would be misleading, record the anomalous date(s) separated by commas.2 Explain significant chronological gaps in the materials in the Scope and Content Element (3.1).

1827, 1952-1978

1975, 2002

Estimated Date Ranges

2.4.12 At all levels of description, where the earliest or latest dates pertaining to the unit being described are estimates, indicate the estimated dates in a clear and consistent fashion.3

approximately 1952-1978

circa 1870-1879

Single Dates

2.4.13 If the materials fall within a single year, record that date or a more specific date therein.

1975

1975 March-August

Exact Single Dates

2.4.14 For descriptions of a single item, record exact dates in a consistent and unambiguous fashion, preferably expressed as year-month-day.4

1906 March 17

Estimated Single Dates

2.4.15 If no date can be found on or in the material itself or determined from any other source, estimate the nearest year, decade, century, or other interval as precisely as possible. Record estimated dates in a consistent fashion.

probably 1867

approximately 1925

before 1867

after 1867 January 5

1892 or 1893

1890s

circa August 1975

No Dates

2.4.16 When recording date(s) for files and items, if the unit being described bears no date and the institution does not wish to or it may be misleading to record an estimated date, use undated. Do not use the abbreviations “n.d.” or “s.d.”



[1] Most MARC-based systems will allow only one date type, and the repository’s ability to label dates will be very limited. EAD and other systems are more flexible in this area.

[2] Repositories are encouraged to establish consistent policies and procedures regarding the maximum number of anomalous dates to record.

[3] It is recommended, though not required, that terms reflecting estimation be spelled out rather than abbreviated, as abbreviations may not be understood by all users.

[4] Expression of dates as all numerals is discouraged due to the differing conventions in the order of information.

2.5 Extent (Required)

Purpose and Scope

This element indicates the extent and the physical nature of the materials being described. This is handled in two parts, a number (quantity) and an expression of the extent or material type. The second part of the Extent Element may be either:

  • the physical extent of the materials expressed either as the items, containers or carriers, or storage space occupied; or
  • an enumeration of the material type(s), usually physical material type(s), to which the unit being described belongs. Material types may be general or specific.

Repositories should establish a consistent method of articulating statements of extent.

If the description of particular media or individual items requires more detail, such as other physical characteristics or dimensions, consult an appropriate standard, such as those listed in Appendix B.

If the material type has been provided in the title statement, do not repeat it in the statement of extent.

Commentary: It is important to include information about the quantity and physical nature of the materials for several reasons. It enables users to eliminate material that is irrelevant to their needs; for example, a user may want only the material containing photographs. It also enables users to plan their research: knowing the quantity is important because it takes longer to go through thirty boxes or twenty hours of sound recordings than it does to go through one box or five hours. The amount of detail provided at any level of description is a matter of institutional policy, depending on user needs and available resources. At lower levels in a multilevel description, extent may be expressed as an enumeration of boxes or folders rather than as a narrative extent statement.

Further details about quantity and physical characteristics may also be provided in the Scope and Content Element (3.1).

Exclusions

2.5.1 Record information about physical characteristics that affect the use of the unit being described in the Physical Access Element (4.2).

Sources of Information

2.5.2 Derive the information from the materials themselves or take it from transfer documents, published descriptions, or other reliable sources.

General Rules

2.5.3 Record the numerical quantity associated with each expression of physical extent, containers or carriers, number of items, or material type, using the imperial system of measurement in Arabic numerals, unless the repository has made a decision to use the metric system.

2.5.4 Record the quantity of the material in terms of its physical extent as linear or cubic feet, number of items, or number of containers or carriers.1

45 linear feet

5,321 items

16 boxes

2 film reels

15 folders

10.0 cubic feet

2.5.5 Optionally, record the quantity in terms of material type(s). Material types may be general, such as textual materials,2 graphic materials, cartographic materials, architectural and technical drawings, moving images, and sound recordings, or more specific types, such as those found in RDA and various thesauri.3

10 boxes of textual materials

1,000 photographs

50 technical drawings

800 maps

12 audiocassettes

2.5.6 Optionally, qualify the statement of physical extent to highlight the existence of material types that are important.

45 linear feet, including 200 photographs and 16 maps

3 boxes, including photographs and audiocassettes

Multiple Statements of Extent

2.5.7 If a parallel expression of extent is required or desirable, add this information in parentheses.

2,400 photographs (12 linear feet)

89.3 linear feet (150 boxes and 109 oversize folders)

71 maps (3.5 cubic feet)

1 diary (352 pages)

52 megabytes (1,180 computer files)

0.5 linear feet (51 floppy discs, 5 Zip discs, 3 CD-ROMs)

2.5.8 Optionally, provide multiple statements of extent to highlight the existence of material types that are important.

12 linear feet of textual materials, 68 photographs,
16 architectural drawings

107 boxes, 4 oversize boxes, 575 oversize folders, 225 rolled drawings

Approximately 390 linear feet

Two expressions of the extent from the same collection

Approximate Statements of Extent

2.5.9 If parts of the material being described are numerous and the exact number cannot be readily ascertained, record an approximate number and indicate that it is an estimate.

approximately 35 linear feet

about 24,000 maps

circa 11,000 photographs

Statements of Extent for Electronic Records

2.5.10 Electronic records may be described in terms of size (kilobytes, megabytes, gigabytes) or in terms of structure (digital files, directories, items, etc.). If desired, both may be used.

700 Megabytes

3 file directories containing 48 PDF files

23 digital files (1 Gigabyte)

approximately 275 digital image and audio files (12.4 GB) on
1 portable hard drive

2.5.11 Optionally, descriptions of electronic records may include file format type as well as size. The file format type is normally the file name extension (.doc, .pdf, .ppt, etc.). This is especially recommended where the description includes a link directly to the record.

PDF (88 Kilobytes)



[1] It is recommended, though not required, that terms reflecting physical extent be spelled out rather than abbreviated, as abbreviations may not be understood by all users.

[2] It is usually assumed that archival materials are textual in nature, so it may not be necessary to supply the term “textual materials” unless it is desirable to distinguish from other material types.

[3] See especially Art & Architecture Thesaurus and Library of Congress Authorities (full citations provided in Appendix B).

2.6 Name of Creator(s) (Required, If Known)

Purpose and Scope

This element identifies the corporate bodies, persons, and families associated with the creation, assembly, accumulation, and/or maintenance and use of the materials being described so that they might be appropriately documented and used to create access points by which users can search for and retrieve descriptive records.

Commentary: For archival materials, the creator is typically the corporate body, person, or family responsible for an entire body of materials. However, a creator can also be responsible for the intellectual or artistic content of a single item, as in the writer of a letter or the painter of a portrait. A collector or compiler of materials (e.g., Vietnam War memorabilia, letters of presidents of the United States, or materials relating to suffragettes) is considered the creator of the collection.

This element provides rules for determining which entities need to be documented as creators. The names selected in this process can also serve as access points—index terms by which users can search for and locate relevant archival materials. The use of the names of creators as access points enables researchers to gain access to an institution’s holdings and provides a means of linking all records created by a particular person, family, or corporate body. The selection of access points is discussed in the Overview of Archival Description.

Repositories should standardize the formation of creator names to ensure that the name is identical each time it is used in a descriptive system and that each person, family, or corporate body has a heading that applies to it alone. Repositories are encouraged to employ recognized standardized vocabularies (e.g., Library of Congress Authorities) and formulate nominal access points according to established rules, such as those found in AACR2 or RDA.

Exclusions

2.6.1 The rules for creating archival authority records are found in Part II.

2.6.2 Record information about entities that held custody of the materials being described but are not responsible for the creation, assembly, accumulation, and/or maintenance and use of the materials in the Custodial History Element (5.1).

Sources of Information

2.6.3 The source for the name of the creator is usually the name element in the devised title (2.3.4–2.3.17). Take the information from any reliable source, including the internal evidence of the materials being described, an external source such as a records schedule or communication with a donor.

Commentary: When describing the records of a person or family for which there are several creators, the devised title may contain all of the creators’ names. However, it is much more likely that the repository will choose to include in the title only the name of the person or family around which the collection is formed. Names of other creators can appear in other parts of the description (e.g., the Administrative/Biographical History Element, 2.7) and be recorded as access points. When devising a title for the records of a corporate body, only one creator can be named in the title. Other creators can be mentioned in other parts of the description (e.g., the Administrative/Biographical History Element, 2.7) and recorded as access points. Rules for formulating the name segment of devised titles are found in rules 2.3.4–2.3.17.

General Rules

2.6.4 Record the name(s) of the creator(s) identified in the name element in the devised title of the materials using standardized vocabularies (e.g., Library of Congress Authorities) or with rules for formulating standardized names, such as those found in AACR2, ISAAR(CPF), or RDA.

Hamilton, Alexander, 1757-1804

      Title: Alexander Hamilton papers

Lyon, Phyllis

Martin, Del

      Title: Phyllis Lyon and Del Martin papers

Richardson, James Burchell

      Title: James Burchell Richardson family papers

Schramm family

      Title: Schramm family papers

Wharton, Edith, 1862-1937

Fullerton, William Morton, b. 1865

Title: Edith Wharton correspondence with Morton Fullerton

Bollingen Foundation

      Title: Bollingen Foundation records

United States. Bureau of Insular Affairs

      Title: United States Bureau of Insular Affairs records

Irvine Company

University of California (System). Regents.

Title: Land agreements between the University of California and the Irvine Company

2.6.5 Optionally, describe the nature of the relationship between the entit(ies) named in the creator element and the materials being described (e.g., creator, author, subject, custodian, copyright owner, controller, or owner). Where possible, terms should be applied from a controlled vocabulary (e.g., Resource Description and Access, Appendix I, or the MARC Code List for Relators).

            Wisdom, William B., 1900-1977, collector

            Title: William B. Wisdom Collection of Thomas Wolfe

Longfellow, Henry Wadsworth, 1807-1882, recipient

            Title: Letters to Henry Wadsworth Longfellow

2.6.6 Optionally, indicate by codes or text whether the entity named is a corporate body, person, or family name.

100 3b ‡a William Smith family

Note: MARC 21 encoding, indicating that the entry is a family name

<corpname>Hal Leonard Publishing Corporation</corpname>

Note: EAD encoding, indicating that the entry is a corporate body

Personal name: Norton, Margaret Cross, 1891-1984

Note: Text label, indicating that the entry is a personal name

2.6.7 Where the names of all creators are not included in the devised title, in addition to those named in the title, record in the authorized form the names of other persons, families, or corporate bodies identified in the Administrative/Biographical History Element as creators of the materials being described.

For “Pettigrew family papers” record as creators:

Pettigrew family

Pettigrew, Charles, 1744–1807

Pettigrew, Charles Lockhart, 1816–1873

Pettigrew, Ebenezer, 1783–1848

Pettigrew, James Johnston, 1828–1863

Pettigrew, William S., 1818–1900

2.6.8 Optionally, if the name(s) of the creator(s) of series, files, or items is included in the devised title for that level or in an Administrative/Biographical History Element, record a creator element for it at that level of description.

 Collection title: Eugene Loring papers

Series title: H. N. Clugston and Mary Ann Maudlin dance scrapbooks

(Record in creator element at the collection level: Loring, Eugene, 1914-1982)

(Optionally, record in a creator element at the series level: Clugston, H. N. and Maudlin, Mary Ann)

Collection title: Alexander Graham Bell family papers, 1834-1970

Item title: Biography of Gardiner Greene Hubbard

(Record in the creator element at the collection level: Bell family)

(Optionally, record in a creator element at the item level: Hubbard, Gardiner Greene)

 

2.7 Administrative/Biographical History (Optimum)

Purpose and Scope

The purpose of this element is to describe the required elements of a biographical or administrative history note about creators embedded in the description of materials. The administrative/biographical history provides relevant information about corporate bodies, persons, or families who are identified using the Name of Creator(s) Element and who therefore function as nominal access points. This element also describes the relationship of creators to archival materials by providing information about the context in which those materials were created.

Commentary: Information about the corporate body, person, or family that created, assembled, accumulated, and/or maintained and used the materials being described may be described in one of two ways:

1. Incorporated into the description using biographical/historical notes. These rules are covered here in Element 2.7.

2. Held in a separate system of authority files that are linked to the archival descriptions and displayed together. These rules are covered in Part II.

Archivists may wish to devise more or less detail, depending on the system being used and other local variables. For example, the administrative/biographical history information in a catalog record describing the materials should be brief, while an authority record or creator sketch in a multilevel finding aid may be much more extensive, consisting of a narrative description, chronology, or both.

There may be instances in describing collections where providing information about the collector is not necessary—for example, when the repository is the collector.

Exclusions

2.7.1 Record information about the scope and content of the materials in the Scope and Content Element (3.1).

2.7.2 Record information about the structure or arrangement of the materials in the System of Arrangement Element (3.2).

2.7.3 Record information about the custodial history in the Custodial History Element (5.1).

Sources of Information

2.7.4 Assemble the information from reliable sources, such as the materials themselves and reference works. Establish a consistent policy regarding the content, form, and placement of citation of sources and quotations.

Rules for Biographical Historical Notes Done Within the Description

2.7.5 Where the administrative/biographical history is provided within the description, provide administrative/biographical history at the highest levels of description as instructed in rules 2.7.6 to 2.7.33.

2.7.6 At the highest level of description, give information about the history of the corporate body(ies), person(s), or family(ies) that created, assembled, accumulated, and/or maintained and used the material as a whole.

2.7.7 Optionally, at subsequent levels of description, if the creator of the subordinate unit is different from the creator of the material as a whole, give information about the history of the corporate body(ies), person(s), or family(ies) that created, assembled, accumulated, and/or maintained and used that subordinate unit.

2.7.8 When primary responsibility for the creation, assembly, accumulation, and/or maintenance and use of the materials is shared between two or more corporate bodies, or two or more persons, or two or more families, create separate administrative/biographical histories for each corporate body, person, or family.

2.7.9 When primary responsibility for the creation, assembly, accumulation, and/or maintenance and use of the materials is shared between two or more members of a family, create separate biographical histories for the family and for each person.

Selection of the Subelements

2.7.10 Include in the Administrative/Biographical History all of the following subelements1 that are relevant to the corporate body, person, or family being described and that provide the information necessary to explain the context in which the materials were created, assembled, accumulated, and/or maintained and used.

Biographical History of Individuals or Families

2.7.11 Record information relevant to the understanding of the life, activities, and relationships of the person or family, applying rules 2.7.12 to 2.7.21 as necessary.

Bessye J. Bearden was born in Atlantic City, New Jersey, in 1891, the youngest child of George and Carrie Banks. She attended local schools in North Carolina, Hartshorn Memorial College in Richmond, and Virginia Normal and Industrial Institute, from which she graduated. In later years Mrs. Bearden did graduate work at the University of Western Pennsylvania and Columbia University.

At the age of 20, Bessye Banks married R. Howard Bearden. They had one son, Romare, who became an internationally renowned artist.

Mrs. Bearden managed the New York office of the E. C. Brown Real Estate Company of Philadelphia for many years. She was also the New York representative for the Chicago Defender, starting in 1927, and did freelance writing for other publications. On June 11, 1935, Mrs. Bearden was appointed Deputy Collector of Internal Revenue, serving first in the Processing Division and later as an auditor. In 1922 she was the first black woman to be elected to local School Board No. 15 in New York City, where she served until 1939.

Mrs. Bearden was involved in numerous civic activities and belonged to several organizations, among them the New York Urban League, where she served as secretary of the executive board; the Council of Negro Women, where she served as treasurer; and the executive boards of the Harlem Community Council and the Colored Women’s Democratic League, of which she was the first president.

Mrs. Bearden died in September 1943 at Harlem Hospital in New York City.

Biographical sketch for the Bessye J. Bearden papers

Chang and Eng Bunker (1811-1874), the original Siamese twins, were born in Meklong, Siam, and were brought from Bangkok to Boston in 1829. After extensive tours in North America and Europe, they settled in Wilkes County (later Surry County), N.C., were naturalized, and received the surname Bunker by act of the legislature. In 1843, Chang and Eng Bunker married Sarah and Adelaide Yates, daughters of David Yates of Wilkes County, N.C. Chang had ten children; Eng had nine children. They continued to make exhibition tours until about 1870.

Biographical sketch for the Chang and Eng Bunker papers

1886        Born 14 October, Fayetteville, N.C., son of Katherine Sloan and Alexander Graham

1909        Received A.B. from University of North Carolina

1910        Licensed to practice law in North Carolina

1911-1913   English teacher at Raleigh High School

1914-1916   Instructor of history, UNC

1916        Received M.A. from Columbia University

1917-1919   U.S. Marine Corps private (mustered out as first lieutenant)

1920-1921   Assistant professor, UNC

1921-1927   Associate professor, UNC; member of the President’s Committee on Education; twice president of the North Carolina Conference of Social Service (sponsored and prepared first worker’s compensation act in North Carolina); founded Citizens’ Library Movement of North Carolina

1927-1930   Professor of history, UNC

1930-1932   President of UNC (Chapel Hill)

Chronology for the Frank Porter Graham papers

2.7.12 At the beginning of the biographical history, provide a brief summary of the most relevant aspects of a person’s or family’s life. Include name, dates, profession, and geographic location.

Frederick Reines (1918-1998) was a particle physicist, Nobel laureate, and educator internationally recognized for his verification of the existence of the neutrino and investigation of its properties.

Biographical sketch for the Frederick Reines papers

Political activist Allard Kenneth Lowenstein (1929-1980) served as a lawyer, teacher, speaker, author, U.S. congressman from New York, U.S. ambassador to the United Nations, and founder and leader of several organizations.

Biographical sketch for the Allard K. Lowenstein papers

Guion Griffis Johnson (1900-1989) of Chapel Hill, N.C., was a professor, author, scholar, journalist, women’s advocate, and general civic leader.

Biographical sketch for the Guion Griffis Johnson papers

Name(s)

2.7.13 Record the full name, title(s), married name(s), alias(es), pseudonym(s), and common or popular name(s) of persons.

Edgar Allardyce Wood wrote under the name of Kerry Wood. He was also known as Nobby.

Michael Rigsby Revere, formerly Michael Darrell Rigsby, was born in 1951.

2.7.14 For families, record information about the origin of the family and the names of persons forming it, including the facts of marriages, and the names of children.

The Gordon family of Savannah, Ga., included William Washington (W. W.) Gordon (1834-1912), lawyer, Confederate Army officer, cotton merchant, state legislator, and brigadier general during the Spanish-American War of 1898; his wife, Eleanor (Nelly) Lytle Kinzie Gordon (1835-1917); her mother, Juliette Magill (Mrs. John) Kinzie of Chicago, author; and the children of W. W. and Nelly, especially G. Arthur (Arthur) Gordon (1872-1941), cotton merchant and civic leader of Savannah; Juliette (Daisy) Gordon Low (1860-1927), founder of the Girl Scouts; and Mabel Gordon Leigh, who lived in England and was honored for her relief work during World War I.

Biographical sketch for the Gordon family papers

The Ker family was related to the Baker and other families of Mississippi and Louisiana. Prominent family members included John Ker (1789-1850) of Natchez, Miss., and Concordia Parish, La., who was a surgeon, planter, 1830s Louisiana state senator, and vice president of the American Colonization Society; his wife Mary Baker Ker (d. 1862); their daughter, schoolteacher Mary Susan Ker (1838-1923), who taught at the Natchez Institute; and two grandnieces raised by Mary Susan: Matilda Ralston (Tillie) Dunbar (fl. 1890s-1960s), who clerked in a Fayette, Miss., bank, and Catharine Dunbar Brown (d. 1959), who first taught at the Natchez Institute and later owned a rare book and antiques store.

Biographical sketch for the Ker family papers

Dates

2.7.15 For persons, record the dates or approximate dates of birth and death.2

Charles Bishop Kuralt, 1934-1997, was a newspaper, radio, and television journalist and author.

Biographical sketch for the Charles Kuralt papers

George Moses Horton (1798?-ca. 1880) was a Chatham County, N.C., slave who taught himself to read and compose poetry.

Biographical sketch for the George Moses Horton poem

Place(s) of Residence

2.7.16 Indicate the geographical place(s) of residence of the person or family and the length of residence in each place, as well as any other place with which the person or family has a connection.

Edward Hammond Boatner was born November 13, 1898, in New Orleans, Louisiana. His father, Dr. Daniel Webster Boatner, was an itinerant minister who took his family with him on his travels from church to church. Impressed by the singing he heard in those churches, Boatner began to collect spirituals at an early age. He was educated in the public schools of St. Louis, Missouri, where his family lived during his childhood. He also attended the public schools of Kansas City, Kansas, where his family later moved. Upon graduation in 1916, Boatner took lessons in voice and piano at Western University in Quindaro, Kansas, for a short time. Later that year Boatner sang for the famous tenor Roland Hayes, who encouraged the young baritone to continue his vocal studies in Boston. Boatner followed Hayes’s advice and moved to Boston in 1917. In 1925, Boatner moved to Chicago in order to complete his formal education. He earned his bachelor’s degree in music from the Chicago College of Music in 1932. During his student years in Chicago, Boatner directed the choirs at Olivet Baptist Church and concertized widely as a singer. His reputation grew during the years 1925-1933, when he was director of music for the National Baptist Convention. In 1933, Boatner was appointed director of music at Samuel Huston College in Austin, Texas. He later taught at the Wiley College in Marshall, Texas, where he was appointed dean of music. During the late 1930s, he settled permanently in New York City, where he opened the Edward Boatner Studio.

Biographical sketch for the Edward Boatner papers

Born in eastern Ukraine, Vsevolod Holubnychy fled with his family to Bavaria in 1943 to escape the Red Army. In 1951, he moved to New York City and attended Columbia University. He was professor at the City University of New York from 1962 until his death.

Biographical sketch for the Vsevolod Holubnychy fonds

The Cameron family of Orange and Durham counties and Raleigh, N.C., was among antebellum North Carolina’s largest landholders and slave holders; the Camerons also owned substantial plantations in Alabama and Mississippi.

Biographical sketch for the Cameron family papers

Antonina Hansell Looker (1898-1987) was an author, teacher, and psychiatric worker of Atlanta and Lakemont, Rabun County, Ga., and New York City.

Biographical sketch for the Antonina Hansell Looker papers

Education

2.7.17 Record information about the formal education of persons, including members of families whose education is important to an understanding of their life.

With the outbreak of World War II, the Yasutake family, together with all other ethnic Japanese residing in Washington, Oregon, and California, was removed to an internment camp. The family was sent to the Minidoka Relocation Center in Hunt, Idaho. This internment made a deep impression on Yamada that informed much of her later literary and political career. After the war, she completed a B.A. at New York University (1947) and an M.A. at the University of Chicago (1953), both in English literature.

Biographical sketch for the Mitsuye Yamada papers

Floyd B. McKissick (1922-1991), the son of Ernest Boyce and Magnolia Thompson McKissick, was born in Asheville, N.C., on
9 March 1922. He earned his undergraduate and law degrees from North Carolina Central University. During the course of his educational pursuits, he became the first African American man to attend the Law School at the University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill.

Biographical sketch for the Floyd B. McKissick papers

Occupation, Life, and Activities

2.7.18 Record information about the principal occupation(s) and career or lifework of persons or about the activities of families. Also indicate any other activities important to an understanding of the life of the person or family. Give information about significant accomplishments or achievements, including honors, decorations, and noteworthy public recognition.

Blyden Jackson, African American professor of English at the University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill, wrote novels and works on African-American and Southern literature. He also served from 1973 to 1981 as the assistant dean/special assistant to the dean of the Graduate School at UNC-CH and was charged with promoting the recruitment and retention of minority graduate students and working with the University’s Student Aid Office to secure scholarships and fellowships for graduate students.

Biographical sketch for the Blyden Jackson papers

Paul Green’s contributions were widely recognized. In addition to the early Pulitzer Prize and the Guggenheim Fellowship, he received the Belasco Little Theatre Tournament trophy in 1925. Other honors included the National Theatre Conference plaque, the American Theater Association citation for distinguished service to the theater, the North Carolina Civil Liberties Union’s Frank P. Graham Award, the Morrison Award, the North Caroliniana Society Award, the North Carolina Writers Conference Award, and the Sir Walter Raleigh cup. In 1979 the General Assembly named him North Carolina’s dramatist laureate. He received honorary doctorates from the University of North Carolina, Davidson College, Campbell College, the North Carolina School of the Arts, and four out-of-state colleges and universities.

Biographical sketch for the Paul Green papers

2.7.19 Identify important relationships with other persons or organizations and indicate any office(s) held.

Susan M. Arkeketa, who is Otoe-Missouri and Muscogee (Creek), has worked for nonprofit Indian organizations such as the Oklahoma City Native American Center, the Native American Rights Fund, and the Native American Journalists Association (NAJA). She served the latter as executive director when it was known as the Native American Press Association (NAPA) and later as a member of its board of directors. She has taught writing and speech at Haskell Indian Nations University, Tulsa Community College, and the University of Phoenix. She continues to work as a freelance writer and consultant to tribes and organizations.

Biographical sketch for the Susan Arkeketa papers

Jessie Daniel Ames (1883-1972) was a civil rights worker of Atlanta, Ga.; Georgetown, Tex.; and Tryon, N.C. Beginning in 1922, Ames served separate roles as secretary and vice president of the Texas Commission on Interracial Cooperation. By 1929, she had moved to Atlanta, where she was director of women’s work for the Commission on Interracial Cooperation. During this time, Ames established the Association of Southern Women for the Prevention of Lynching, which functioned as a volunteer component within the Commission.

Biographical sketch for the Jessie Daniel Ames papers

2.7.20 For families, describe family relationships that have a bearing on the understanding of the unit being described.

Lenoir family members include William Lenoir, Revolutionary War general and N.C. politician of Fort Defiance, Caldwell County,  N.C.; Lenoir's friend and father-in-law of two of Lenoir’s sons Waightstill Avery, lawyer, legislator, and signer of the Mecklenburg Declaration; and his son-in-law Israel Pickens, N.C.  congressman, 1811-1817, governor of Alabama, 1821-1825, and U.S.  senator from Alabama, 1826.

Biographical sketch for the Lenoir family papers

Thomas Gale (fl. 1815-1881), a physician who served with Indian-fighting soldiers in Alabama Territory in 1815 and afterward became a planter in Jefferson and Yazoo counties, Miss., and later in Davidson, Tenn., married Ann M. Greene (fl. 1820-1845). Their son, William Dudley Gale (fl. 1844-1881), married Katherine (“Kate”) Polk (fl. 1858-1895) in 1858, after his first wife died.

Biographical sketch for the Gale and Polk family papers

Other Significant Information

2.7.21 Record any other important information not recorded elsewhere in the biographical history.

Administrative History of Corporate Bodies

2.7.22 Give information relevant to the understanding of the creator’s functions, activities, and relations with other corporate bodies, applying rules 2.7.23 to 2.7.33 as necessary.

The American Missionary Association was established in 1846 as an interdenominational missionary society devoted to abolitionist principles. From its beginning, the major support for the Association came from Congregationalists, but it also received support from Wesleyan Methodists, Free Presbyterians, and Free Will Baptists. In 1865 it became the official agency of the Congregational churches for conducting educational work among the freedmen. Support from other denominations gradually declined until the Association became exclusively a Congregational organization.

Administrative history for the American Missionary Association records

2.7.23 At the beginning of the administrative history, provide a brief summary of the most relevant aspects of the corporate body’s existence. Including name, dates of existence, main functions or activities, and geographic location.

The Goldband Recording Corporation of Lake Charles, La., has played a key role in documenting and shaping musical traditions, tastes, and trends, both regionally and on an international level since 1944.

Administrative history for the Goldband Recording Corporation records

A. P. Watt and Company of London, England, was the world’s first literary agency and, for thirty years after its founding in the early 1880s, was the largest in the world.

Administrative history for the A. P. Watt and Company records

The Anne C. Stouffer Foundation was established in 1967 by Anne Forsyth of Winston-Salem, N.C., to promote the integration of preparatory schools in the South.

Administrative history for the Anne C. Stouffer Foundation records

Dates of Founding and/or Dissolution

2.7.24 Give the date and place of the founding of the corporate body, and if applicable, the date and place of its dissolution.

Glencoe Mills, established in 1880 by James Henry Holt (1833-1897) and William Erwin Holt (1839-1917), operated until 1954, producing cotton fabric.

Administrative history for the Glencoe Mills records

The White Rock Baptist Church was founded in 1866 in Durham, N.C., by two clergymen, the Reverend Zuck Horton and the Reverend Samuel “Daddy” Hunt, who organized the church in the home of Margaret “Maggie” Faucette.

Administrative history for the White Rock Baptist Church records

Geographical Areas

2.7.25 Give the location of the head office and of any branch or regional offices, as well as the geographic region in which the organization operated.

The Research Triangle Foundation (RTF) is the owner and developer of Research Triangle Park, N.C., a research park housing research institutes and other businesses in Piedmont North Carolina.

Administrative history for the Research Triangle Foundation records

The Carolina Panel Company of Lexington, N.C., began manufacturing high-quality hardwood plywood in 1927 to devise the local furniture industry’s demand for plywood.

Administrative history for the Carolina Panel Company records

Mandate

2.7.26 Record the enabling legislation or other legal or policy instrument(s) that act as the source of authority for the corporate body in terms of its powers, responsibilities, or sphere of activities, including any significant changes in its authority and functions.

 In 1959 the North Carolina General Assembly appropriated funds to the Consolidated University of North Carolina to establish a long-range planning effort for capital improvements. In September of that year, the Chapel Hill campus used $15,000 from the appropriation to create the University Planning Office, with Arthur Norman Tuttle Jr. as director.

Administrative history for the Facilities Planning and Design Office of the University of North Carolina records

Functions

2.7.27 Record information about the functions and activities performed by the corporate body being described.

Throughout the antebellum period, the faculty was responsible for enforcing social as well as academic regulations and for handling cases of student misconduct. After 1875 the faculty assumed an increasing role in establishing policies governing educational activities and the awarding of degrees by the University.

Administrative history for the General Faculty and Faculty Council of the University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill records

Administrative Structure

2.7.28 Describe the internal structure of the corporate body and the dates of any changes to the structure that are significant to the understanding of the way the corporate body conducted its affairs. Name any higher body(ies) having authority or control over the corporate body, or any corporate body(ies) over which it exercised authority or control, and describe the nature and any change of the authority or controlling relationship.

The Office of the Associate Vice Chancellor for Business was created 1 January 1970 as part of a major reorganization of the University’s Division of Business and Finance. Among the units initially supervised by the associate vice chancellor for Business were the campus auxiliary enterprises, which included the Horace Williams Airport, the Carolina Inn, the Laundry, Student Stores, and the campus utilities. The associate vice chancellor also supervised the Campus Police (later named Security Services, then Public Safety Department), the Health and Safety Office, Traffic and Parking, and Purchases and Stores. The position later assumed responsibility for additional units, including the Food Service, other University conference centers (Quail Roost and the William Rand Kenan, Jr. Center), the Internal Audit Department, and Trademark Licensing.

Administrative history for the Office of the Associate Vice Chancellor for Business of the University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill records

Predecessor and Successor Bodies

2.7.29 Give the facts of the relationship of the body with predecessor or successor bodies to its mandate, functions, or activities.

The University’s Physical Plant Department is responsible for the operation and maintenance of campus facilities and grounds and for the provision of utilities. It was created in the mid-1930s to coordinate and oversee the functions performed by the previously separate Buildings Department and Groups Superintendent.

Administrative history for the Physical Plant of the University of North Carolina records

2.7.30 In cases of corporate or administrative amalgamations or mergers, name the administrative or corporate entities involved and summarize the nature of the amalgamation.

In 1984, the Southern Furniture Manufacturers Association (SFMA) and the National Association of Furniture Manufacturers (NFMA) merged to form the American Furniture Manufacturers Association (AFMA). Headquartered in High Point, N.C., AFMA provides educational services to its member companies, a comprehensive public relations program to represent the industry to consumers, government relations to relay member interests to national agencies and officials, and statistical information about home furnishings manufacturing.

Administrative history for the American Furniture Manufacturers Association records

Names of the Corporate Bodies

2.7.31 Record any changes in the official name of the body not recorded in one of the other elements, any popular or common names by which it has been known, and its name(s) in other languages.

The Office of the Vice President for Academic Affairs was created in 1951 and was then called simply Vice President; subsequently it was called Provost, Vice President and Provost, Vice President for Graduate Studies and Research, Vice President for Academic Affairs (in 1964), Vice President for Academic Affairs and Senior Vice President, and Senior Vice President and Vice President for Academic Affairs (beginning in 1995).

Administrative history for the Office of the Senior Vice President and Vice President for Academic Affairs of the University of North Carolina (System) records

In 1900, Sidney Halstead Tomlinson founded Tomlinson Chair Manufacturing Company in High Point, N.C. The company became Tomlinson of High Point, Inc., in 1934.

Administrative history for the Tomlinson of High Point, Inc., records

Name(s) of Chief Officers

2.7.32 Record the personal name(s) of persons holding the position as chief officer of the organization or corporate body, if appropriate.

Frank Porter Graham (1886-1972) was the first president, 1932-1949, of the Consolidated University of North Carolina, which included the University of North Carolina in Chapel Hill, North Carolina State College in Raleigh, and Woman’s College in Greensboro.

Administrative history for the Office of President of the University of North Carolina (System): Frank Porter Graham records

Other Significant Information

2.7.33 Record any other important information not recorded elsewhere in the administrative history.



[1] The way in which the subelements are presented to users is a matter of institutional policy. Repositories may choose the order in which to present the subelements or whether to present them in a narrative format or in a structured format with each element introduced by an introductory word or phrase.

[2] While DACS generally discourages the use of abbreviations, the use of ca. and other abbreviations in birth and death dates follows the authority form as established in the Library of Congress Authorities.