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charter

n. ~ 1. A document, issued by a government, that grants rights, liberties, or powers to its citizens. - 2. A government act or filing establishing a business, especially articles of incorporation. - 3. A document outlining the mission, principles, and procedures of an organization. - 4. Historical ยท A record documenting title to land obtained by livery of seisin.

Notes: 

A charter1 is distinguished from a constitution in that the former is granted by the sovereign, while the latter is established by the people themselves. Both are the fundamental law of the land.